What is a Citation?
A citation is the basic information required to identify and locate a specific source, e.g. book, book chapter, article, website, video, etc.
What is a Citation Style?
Different academic disciplines have specific guidelines for organizing material and citing sources. These rules are published as style manuals. While each citation system is distinct, the underlying rationale is the same–to facilitate written communication among members in a scholarly community.
Parts of a Citation*
Example: Macfarlane, Bruce. Researching with Integrity: The Ethics of Academic Enquiry. Routledge, 2009.
Example: Tan, Amy. “Yes and No.” The Genius of Language: Fifteen Writers Reflect on Their Mother Tongues, edited by Wendy Lesser, Pantheon Books, 2004, pp. 25-34.
Example: Hess, Mickey. “Was Foucault A Plagiarist? Hip-Hop Sampling And Academic Citation.” Computers & Composition, vol. 23, no. 3, 2006, pp. 280-295.
Example: Calonia, Jennifer. “How to Avoid Plagiarism.” Grammerly Blog, 21 Aug 2019, https://www.grammarly.com/blog/5-most-effective-methods-for-avoiding-plagiarism.
*The order and punctuation of the citation components are dictated by the style you use (above are formatted in MLA).
Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) are unique identifiers that may be assigned to published articles and other works. Their purpose is ensure persistent access to online content. If a DOI is available, you should include it in your citation.
APA: Clark, D. A., & Murphy, W. (2021). The efficacy of a classroom game for teaching APA style citation. Teaching of Psychology, 48(3), 209–214. https://doi.org/10.1177/0098628320977263
MLA: Clark, Daniel A., and Walter Murphy. “The Efficacy of a Classroom Game for Teaching APA Style Citation.” Teaching of Psychology, vol. 48, no. 3, July 2021, pp. 209–14. Sage Journals, https://doi.org/10.1177/0098628320977263.