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Citation Styles

Citation Basics

What is a Citation?

A citation is the basic information required to identify and locate a specific source, e.g. book, book chapter, article, website, video, etc.

What is a Citation Style?

Different academic disciplines have specific guidelines for organizing material and citing sources. These rules are published as style manuals. While each citation system is distinct, the underlying rationale is the same–to facilitate written communication among members in a scholarly community.

Parts of a Citation*

  • Book: Author Name. Title. Publisher, Year. 

Example: Macfarlane, Bruce. Researching with Integrity: The Ethics of Academic Enquiry. Routledge, 2009. 

  • Book Chapter: Author Name. “Chapter Title.” Book Title. Editor, Publisher, Year, Chapter Page Numbers.

Example: Tan, Amy. “Yes and No.” The Genius of Language: Fifteen Writers Reflect on Their Mother Tongues, edited by Wendy Lesser, Pantheon Books, 2004, pp. 25-34.

  • Journal Article: Author Name. “Article Title.” Journal Title, Volume Number, Issue Number, Year, Article Page Numbers.

Example: Hess, Mickey. “Was Foucault A Plagiarist? Hip-Hop Sampling And Academic Citation.” Computers & Composition, vol. 23, no. 3, 2006, pp. 280-295.

  • Website: Author Name. “Title of Page/Work.” Title of Website, Date of Publication, Location.

Example: Calonia, Jennifer. “How to Avoid Plagiarism.” Grammerly Blog, 21 Aug 2019, https://www.grammarly.com/blog/5-most-effective-methods-for-avoiding-plagiarism.


*The order and punctuation of the citation components are dictated by the style you use (above are formatted in MLA).

What is a DOI?

Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) are unique identifiers that may be assigned to published articles and other works. Their purpose is ensure persistent access to online content. If a DOI is available, you should include it in your citation.

Examples:

APA: Clark, D. A., & Murphy, W. (2021). The efficacy of a classroom game for teaching APA style citation. Teaching of Psychology, 48(3), 209–214. https://doi.org/10.1177/0098628320977263

MLA: Clark, Daniel A., and Walter Murphy. “The Efficacy of a Classroom Game for Teaching APA Style Citation.” Teaching of Psychology, vol. 48, no. 3, July 2021, pp. 209–14. Sage Journals, https://doi.org/10.1177/0098628320977263.